Mariselu

Mărişelu commune is located in the southeast of Bistriţa-Năsăud county, 40 km away from Reghin town and 20 km away from Bistriţa municipality. The territory is within the hydrographic basin of Sieu River.

The vegetation is specific to the low hill area characterized by deciduous forests, spontaneous flora and herbs. The fauna is represented by foxes, rabbits, pheasants, deer, wild boar, wolf, marten, ferrets.

Mariselu commmune  is bordered by:  Budacu de Jos commune to the north, Galaţii Bistriţei commune to the west, Teaca commune to the south, Şieu commune to the east.

The localities of the commune are: Jeica, Mărişelu which is the residence of the commune, Bîrla, Domneşti, Măgurele, Neţeni, Sîntioana,

The archaeological findings show that these places were inhabited since the Roman times, as proved by the archaeological sites from the localities Bârla, Jeica, Domneşti and Mărişelu, mentioned in the list of the historical monuments of the Ministry of Culture.

Mariselu appears under various names over time: Nagyfalu, Magna Villa, Nuşfalău. The earliest documentary news about the village dates back to 1243 when King Bela IV donated to a noble a place of 20 days of ploughing located in Nagyfalau village. In 1332 the settlement appears in the register of papal tithes, which proves the existence of a Catholic community of Saxons.

In 1529, Bistrita Citadel, together with the 50 villages that were part of its domain among which was also Mărişelu, came into the possession of the ruler of Moldavia Petru Rares. His son, Ilias Rares inherited from his father the Transylvanian possessions. As the Saxons could not live alongside the Romanians, it seems that the ruler of Moldavia Ilias Rares (1546-1551) took repressive measures against them. The Saxon priests are mentioned at Mărişelu in 1550. By 1602, as a result of the fights with the army of the General Gheorghe Basta, Bistrita and the Saxon villages had to suffer, being depopulated and the Saxon community from Mărişelu decreased more and more and the Romanian community developed. The Saxon priests, but also the community itself, will leave forever Mărişel in 1603 or 1604. We plainly learn of this from some records of Saxon cult that says: “From that time ceased this parish (Saxon), because the village was occupied by Wallachians (Romanians)”. With the departure of the Saxons, Mărişelu locality will pass from the jurisdiction of Bistrita district under the jurisdiction of Nasaud district. Therefore the Romanians living here have not forgotten their Orthodox faith and thus in 1611 they built a wooden church, which was located approximately next to the former Lutheran church, across Sieu River. The church was built by the villagers and the land for its placement was received by them from the “gubernator of Transylvania” (governor of Transylvania).

Jeica, formerly Seica, Selca (Sälk, Schalk in the Saxon dialect, Schelken, Schelk in German, Zselyk in Hungarian), is documentary attested in 1332, in the papal tithe registers. In 1453 the village is attributed to Iancu of Hunedoara, along with other settlements in Bistrita district. In 1496 a Hungarian population installs in the village, following the depopulation of the village after the Tatar incursion. During the Protestant Reformation the Hungarian inhabitants of the village passed from the Catholic Church to the evangelical church. In 1867, in the place of the old church was built the present church. In 1733 in Jeica are recorded three Romanian families. During the communist period, the village population declined drastically due to some deportations.

Magurele, formerly Șirling, Șârling, Cucutenii pe Șieu , is attested from 1319. In the thirteenth-sixteenth centuries is registered as being a settlement of Saxon settlers found on feudal domain. In 1721 here were found only 8 families, while in 1900 were found 75 houses with 341 souls on a territory of 1270 yokes.

The documentary attestation of Barla locality (Birldref, Berldorf, Biereldorf, Berlád) dates from 1319 when the estate was assigned to Kocis noble family. In 1455 the village comes into the possession of Iancu of Hunedoara. In 1900 the village consisted of 101 houses.

The first attestation of Santioara village, formerly Sântioana Săsească, Sînioana, Sânt-Ioana, dating from 1245 when the village Sceuivan is recorded, while in 1315 it is spoken about “populus de Sceuivan” belonging to the royal domains. In 1602, after Basta’s military expeditions and after the plague that made a lot of victims, the Saxon population disappears, Santioara becoming Romanian village. When the military border was set up this locality entered among the militarized ones. In 1900 the village had 117 houses.

Neteni locality is documentary attested since 1341, being a village of serfs. In the Middle Ages the locality was part of Dăbâca county. In 1291 the king of Hungary – Andrew III passes “Villa Neech” (Neteni village) among the possessions of the bishop of Alba Iulia granting privileges to those who would have established on these territories. In 1341 it is tried a forcible expropriation of these territories by the voivode of Transylvania, which determines the reaction of the pope, threatening with excommunication. In 1343 the estate is given to a noble and remains a village of serfs and in 1719 the community adopted the Greek Catholic rite. At the census of 1720 there were 111 inhabitants in Neteni village, and their number increased throughout the years. Thus, in 1850 there were 207 citizens, and in 1900 were 325. With the passing of time, the young people from the village have quite left these lands and have found a better life in other parts: either abroad or went in the big cities. Now only the children of the village were left in Neteni, continuing their lives. Grey-haired long time ago, the elders regret the years that passed, but they regret most the fact that they remained alone in the village. In Neteni village, today have left only 30 people and mostly older than 80 years. The abandoned houses that once were inhabited are now in ruins, destroyed by wind and rains. Domnesti locality,formerly Bileag ( Attelsdref in the Saxon dialect, Billak, Attelsdorf, Adelsdorf, Zelt in German,) is mentioned since the Roman period due to the salt exploitations existing here. In this village were discovered traces of some exploitations of salt, from the time of the Romans. The Roman exploitations were usually long rooms of 15-30 m, opened in quarry to date, with exploitation in the hearth. Volker Wollmann, in his monograph on mining, emphasizes the presence in the immediate vicinity of the salt deposits, each time, of a Roman fortress. The Roman camp Arcobadara from Ilişua defended the exploitations of salt from Domneşti. In the feudal documents the locality appears as belonging to Dăbâca County that reaches under the possession of the diocese of Alba Iulia in 1228. To encourage the establishment on these territories in 1246 are granted additional rights and privileges by the king of Hungary. The locality is mentioned under the name of Billak.